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Orthopaedics

SHOULDER JOINT, Its Injuries and Disorders

  • This is the most flexible joint in the human body
  • This joint is formed by the union of humerus,scapula and clavicle.
  • Shoulder is made of 2 separate joints
  • (a)glenohumeral joint
  • (b)acromioclavicular joint

SHOULDER INJURIES AND DISORDERS

The shoulder injuries include sprains,strains,dislocation,tendonitis,bursitis,rotator cuff injuries,frozen shoulder

Fractures and arthritis.

  • Shoulder problems are treated with “RICE”
  • R_REST
  • I-ICE
  • C-COMPRESSION
  • E_ELEVATION

Other treatments includes exercises,medicines to reduce pain and swelling.physiotherapy and  surgery if other treatment doesn’t works

BRACHIAL PLEXOPATHY

Brachial plexopathy is pain along with decreased sensation in the arm and shoulder due to a nerve problem.

  • The nerve usually involved in this case is brachial plexus.
  • Damage to the brachial plexus can be caused due to direct injury to the nerve.
  • Stretching injuries
  • Pressure from tumors in the area
  • Damage due to radiation therapy
  • Birth defects that put pressure on the neck area

ITs Symptoms:

  • Numbness of the shoulder,arm or hand
  • Shoulder pain
  • Tingling sensation
  • Burning pain
  • Weakness of the shoulder,arm,hand and wrist

Diagnosis

Test that may be done to diagnose this condition may include

  • Blood test
  • Chest x-ray
  • Electromyogram
  • MRI of head neck and shoulder
  • Nerve conduction tests
  • Nerve biopsy
  • Ultra sound

REHABILITATION PROGRAM or PHYSICAL THERAPY

  • Preserve range of motion
  • Improve strength
  • Manage pain
  • Early mobilization and icing done at onset of injury
  • In subacute phase passive to active motion
  • Assisted active range of motion
  • Heat,tens,ift,used for predominant symptoms
  • Cervical muscle strengthening
  • Use of appropriate slings
  • Protection of extremities and joints
  • Prevention of subluxation
  • Cervical pillows and collars may be required.

OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY

  • Maintain range of motion in the shoulder.
  • Fabricating appropriate orthosis to support the functions of hand.
  • Addressing edema control
  • Retraining activities of daily living.

EXERCISES:

HAND AND WRIST EXERCISE.

  • Hand and finger exercises are safe to do while the affected arm is in a sling
  • While your arm is immobilized in a sling you should not move your shoulder or elbow
  • Use your other hands to assist movements
  • All these movements should be repeated a number of times.

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